Augusto Malta Revival

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The Rio remodeled by mayor Pereira Passos in the early twentieth century and today’s Rio meet in the montages of designer and photographer Marcello Cavalcanti. He’s the name behind the show Augusto Malta Revival, currently at the Marré de Si, in Catete. After analyzing images of Malta (1864-1957), who was a photographer for city hall for 33 years, Cavalcanti went after the perfect angle to remake them. On the computer, he fuses scenarios separated by a century, provoking compelling contrasts. – Source (PT)

Check out all 81 posts on the project Instagram here. And watch the behind the scenes on how he creates the effect below. Seems like magic.

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Rio’s Messy Growth

The messy growth and limited transport links have caused problems that still exist today

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Santa Bárbara Tunnel. The controversial construction was the cause of complaints from residents and killed 18 workers

A public demonstration took over downtown. About five thousand people faced the police, broke posts, and flipped over vehicles. There were records of three deaths, but violence left other victims: countless donkeys stabbed. There was enough even for the animals, the tram-pullers that cut through the city. All this was motivated by the 20 cent increase (vintém) in the fare, a measure that, today, could be equated with the R$0.20 readjustment for buses that also drove a crowd to the streets in 2013. Workers, stimulated by growing opposition to the emperor Dom Pedro II, made the first protest against the transport structure of the city in Rio in 1880, more than 20 years before the Vaccine Revolt (1904).

“At the time, transportation occurred by trams pulled by donkeys. The lower classes and republican opposition rebelled against the monarchy, recalls historian Carlos Addor of the Fluminense Federal University.

The residents of the then-capital of the Empire didn’t know, but their grandchildren and great-grandchildren would grow up facing similar problems. Expensive fares would influence the proliferation of favelas, and the road network grew disorderly, without providing integration between modes of transport. European cities took more than a century to leave behind their rural profile, but Rio took just over 40 years to take on an urban status.

This accelerated pace, coupled with a lack of planning – two large urban projects developed in the last century didn’t leave the planning stage – and localized development aimed at the upper classes, made Rio the uneven metropolis we now know, according to historians, geographers, journalists and writers.

“The entire urbanization process in Rio was done to the exclusion of second-class citizens, says journalist and writer Zuenir Ventura, who in 1994 addressed the roots of this logic in the book “Cidade Partida.”

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Avenida Central. During urban reforms under Pereira Passos, with the intention of turning it into a true Parisian boulevard.

The Center of Everything

At the time of the so-called Vintém Revolt (mentioned at the top), Rio was a city that existed in function of the downtown region. “Suburb” was a word used for the wealthy, and defined neighborhoods such as Glória, Catete and Laranjeiras, still fairly unoccupied and very wooded. This bucolic setting is depicted in Machado de Assis’s “Dom Casmurro”: the protagonist couple, Bentinho and Capitu, lived in Glória, from where one could see the sea through the window, at a time when the Aterro did not exist. Flamengo Beach, with clear waters, was lit up like Copacabana in the first half of the 20th century, but without swimsuits on parade through the sands.

Urban Rio, however, was downtown. In the early 1900s, a quarter of the city lived in slums. At the time, the city took in many poor people: a large number of ex-slaves came here, people who worked in the coffee plantations of the interior. With poor hygiene and housing conditions, these buildings began to be protested – including the folkloric Cabeça de Porco, whose owner lived in Gávea, which was already a noble area of Rio.

To “sanitize” the capital and make it a metropolis like Paris, Mayor Pereira Passos made a series of urban interventions during his term from 1903 to 1906. He demolished about 1,700 buildings to open and widen streets, and practically rebuilt Avenida Central, currently Rio Branco.

“Rio is a city that was founded to expel French invaders and who, at some point, decided that it had to be like France” – mocks historian and Globo columnist Luiz Antônio Simas.

The “sweep” ended with community housing, and the lower classes had to look for other places to live. At the time, says historian Milton Teixeira, it was believed that bad smells transmitted diseases:

“The poor, who could not shower every day or buy French perfumes, were seen as sources of infection.”

Those who could not afford a ride went up the hill. Those who had somewhat better financial conditions were pushed into the new suburbs, now with negative connotations. They were neighborhoods that followed the route of the railroads, created to transport goods. The trolley, controlled by foreign companies, was a symbol of the separation of the city: there was a car for the middle and upper classes and one for the poor, it was the taioba – on which it was possible to read, on a panel, the specification of who was to use it: “For luggage and those with bare feet”.

The trams that took the Zona Sul route, until the Botanic Garden, had a more expensive price because of the length of the route, which ended up limiting its public. As there was no single route, the meeting between the suburbanites and the residents of the Zona Sul took place downtown.

There were times when social classes were coupled with doses of tension. At religious festivals, for example. In the book “Lucíola”, by José de Alencar, Paul meets his beloved, who he later discovers is a courtesan, while she handed out spare change in the celebrations for Nossa Senhora da Glória, on Rua da Lapa. “All the grotesque types of Brazilian society, from the arrogant nullity to vile flattery, paraded in front of me, brushing silk and cashmere with baize or cotton, mixing delicate perfumes with impure exhalations”, he notes, recently-arrived to the city. Luiz Antônio Simas tells us that the feast for Our Lady of Penha in the 1900s and 1910s attracted the Catholic elite and the poor, who formed samba and capoeira groups. At a time when African culture was criminalized, the police always put the blacks on the run.

In the 1930s, with Getulio Vargas’ Estado Novo government, the opening of roads and urbanization projects in the suburbs gained strength. The electricity-powered trains, boosted the occupation of the North and West zones, and bus lines, began to be created. It was a stepping stone for Rio to take on characteristics of a metropolis.

“In 1940, 70% of the Brazilian population lived in the countryside. In 1980, we had 70% of Brazilians in the city. The result of this is “peripheralization”, a slumification, of urban swelling and immobility – notes Marcus Dezemone, professor of History at UERJ and UFF.

Rio, however, had two urban plans drawn up by foreign experts. The first was signed by Alfred Agache in the late 1920s. He had planned the construction of gardens throughout the city – including the suburbs – and opening roads to connect the periphery to downtown, including three subway lines. The project, however, basically didn’t leave the drawing room.

In the 1930s, the suburb was already housing the lower middle class, including immigrants. According to the historian Leonardo Soares, from UFF, the nucleus of the neighborhoods was established around the train stops. The embryo of the Mercadão de Madureira came about – an initiative of Portuguese and Jewish merchants. A May 1936 issue of “Revista da Semana” featured a report about a huge gypsy camp in the region where Cachambi is today (pg 01 & 02). They said they had left Greece, and revealed plans to go to São Paulo.

The more humble people settled in the hills closer to their workplaces. The slumification had a certain complicity from the elite, who needed cheap labor nearby. According to Milton Teixeira, Rocinha, for example, which became a stronghold of Northeastern migrants, began to concentrate, in the 1930s, workers doing construction in São Conrado and Gávea, including that of the Pontifical Catholic University (PUC). Morro Dona Marta, in Botafogo, which was the first community to receive a Peacekeeping Police Unit in 2008, had its first inhabitants brought there by Father José Maria Natuzzi, then-director of the Santo Inácio College. In favelas without water and sewage, the proliferation of diseases so feared by authorities continued – but beyond the reach of Rio’s public opinion.

“Today, Rio has six thousand cases of tuberculosis per year, which occur mainly in favela areas”, says researcher Jorge Castro, from the National School of Public Health at Fiocruz, for whom the urbanization of Rio de Janeiro meant time was needed to realize the importance of basic care in vulnerable locations, which prevents and reduces the demand for more complex care. “In Europe, this vision emerged after the Second World War.”

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Rebouças Tunnel. Construction of tunnels amplified the connection between the Zonas Norte and Sul.

Still Precarious Sanitation

The Rio of the 1950s was a city of precarious services. In addition to seeing the decay of the trams and the growth of mini buses, Cariocas suffered with a lack of electricity and water. The newspapers brought daily reports on the state of the neighborhoods with dry taps. The supply system of the Rio Guandu was only inaugurated in 1965, by governor Carlos Lacerda. Today, Rio still leaves much to be desired in sanitation: only 47% of the sewage is treated, and the municipality is in 50th place among the 100 cities in the 2016 Sanitation Ranking, done by the NGO Trata Brasil. Historian Leonardo Soares points out that, until the 1980s, many residents of Gardênia Azul, in the Zona Oeste, drew water from a large well.

Between 1950 and 1960, the city underwent a new wave of transformations. The favelas, mainly in the South Zone, became a problem that had to be eradicated, and the solution was to remove its residents and accommodate them in planned and often remote farms and neighborhoods. It was in this logic behind the Vila Kennedy, Cidade Alta, Cidade de Deus and Maré – which, with wooden houses, were to be used as temporary residence for families who had been forced to wait for the construction of definitive real estate. A lot of people just stayed there.

“Some housing developments became problems. They took in people who could not sustain themselves”, says Pedro da Luz, president of the Instituto Arquitetos do Brasil (IAB) in Rio. – The Minha Casa Minha Vida program repeated this formula.

Rio invested in road transport. The mini buses were done with, and regular bus lines appeared. The tram, on the other hand, stopped circulating in 1964, and the trains went through a process of being scrapped. Tunnels were opened between the Zona Norte and Sul, which caused controversy. Santa Bárbara, which connects Catumbi and Laranjeiras, was the object of complaints from residents of the two districts, who didn’t want roads that gave access to the tunnels. Before construction was finished, 18 workers died in an explosion. The tunnel, inaugurated in 1964, would be called another name, but ended up dedicated to the saint because, inside, an altar was built in memory of the dead. Santa Bárbara is considered the patron saint of tunnel builders.

Rebouças, inaugurated in 1967, began to let vehicles through still without being totally ready. From 1976, buses began to circulate through its tunnels – it was at this time that the pejorative expression “além túnel” appeared, addressed to the residents of the Zona Norte who became frequenters of the beaches in Ipanema and Leblon.

The subway only came in 1979, almost 90 years after the first lines in the world. It began by connecting five stations, from Glória to Praça Onze.

“Our subway was one of the few on the planet planned to serve the middle class. This type of transport was launched in London, with the aim of taking the poor from the periphery to work”, says Milton Teixeira.

The city also had a second urban plan, in the 1960s, elaborated by the Greek Constantino Doxiadis. In June 1965, Globo reported that it envisaged the construction of an industrial area in the Zona Oeste, of ten thousand homes for slum dwellers and 7,500 classrooms. Only two of the six designed expressways actually left the planning stage: the Linha Vermelha, inaugurated in 1992, and the Linha Amarela, in 1997.

Unconcern with the environment marked the 20th century. The Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, for example, has had several proposals for total landfilling, as revealed in the book “Lagoa”, organized by architect Augusto Ivan de Freitas Pinheiro and urban planner Eliane Pinheiro. The first was from doctor Oswaldo Cruz, in 1894, who thought that the Lagoa, being a marshy area, was a threat to the health of Cariocas. Agache, in the 1920s, wanted the area to be a place to a leisure. In the following decade, Lúcio Costa defended the construction of a university campus in the location. Rodrigo de Freitas resisted, but others did not have the same luck: Bairro Peixoto, in Copacabana, was erected where there was a large base of water.

Reported in O Globo

The Globo edition of October 4, 1967, printed on the front page news of the fire that destroyed the Praia do Pinto Favela in Lagoa, which was eventually removed in the following years. On the same day, the news about the inauguration of Rebouças – then the largest urban tunnel in the world – emphasized that the route from the Zona Norte to the Lagoon could be done in just five minutes.

PS – It seems the article has no real ending…

Source (PT)

Cardboard Head – Joao do Rio

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“Cardboard Head” (aka “O Homem da Cabeça de Papelão“), published in the 1920s by writer and journalist João do Rio, tells the story of Antenor, an honest young man who lives in the Country of the Sun. A man who has a terrible fault: “He always tells the truth”. Due to this, Antenor is discriminated against and repulsed by his family and society in general. Not bearing the pressure, he decides to exchange his head for a cardboard one, produced on an assembly line.

Below is an award-winning stop-motion animation (PT) based on drawings by J. Carlos and inspired by João do Rio’s Cardboard Head.

Reage, Rio – 50 Proposals

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50 proposals made at ‘Reage, Rio!’ to turn things around

In two days of debates, “Reage, Rio!” outlines ways for the government to turn things around, finding a way to change the pattern of violence, resume the pace of economic growth, improve the circulation of people and ensure institutional transparency and efficiency. The five dozen concrete suggestions in the areas of security, urban mobility, economics, public policies (education and health), ethics and tourism were analyzed by a team of reporters, who’ve suggested what needs to be done to get them off the drawing board and actually implemented. In the proposals [link at the bottom], the reader can find links with the respective reports or videos of the seminar.

Some of the suggestions depend on the approval of constitutional amendments or ordinary laws; others, on public investment. There are still those that need isolated or joint actions from the federal, state and city governments.

O Globo and Extra will follow the progress of each idea presented by experts, businessmen and representatives of the public sector and civil society, and the result of this verification will be published in both newspapers.

[DR Note: to save you time, note that the Implementation plan that follows each Proposal is usually some variation of, “it depends on the government”, which speaks for itself. The breakdown below is as follows: 1 – 10 (Security), 11 – 20 (Economy), 21 – 27 (Tourism), 28 – 33 (Urban Mobility), 34 – 39 (Public Policies), 40 – 50 (Ethics)]


SECURITY

Torquato Jardim, Minister of Justice:

1.

Proposal: Reaffirm the agreement with the government to safely fight crimes in general, with an emphasis on giving more room for municipal participation and re-equipping the Military Police.

Implementation: It depends on amending the Constitution to change competencies in the area of public security. There is a PEC [Stability & Growth Pact] regarding this in the House of Representatives.

2.

Proposal: Operational integration with technology (more drones, satellites and computers), starting at the border.

Implementation: It depends on planned investments in the Budget created by the federal government and approved by Congress.

3.

Proposal: Create a single system for public safety, in the mold of the SUS [Unified Health System], with a division of tasks and without .

Implementation: It depends on the approval of a Constitutional amendment or ordinary law in Congress.

4.

Proposal: Institutionalize the National Public Security Force.

Implementation: It depends on the approval of a Constitutional amendment in Congress. Until now at least two proposals haven’t gone forward.


Robson Rodrigues, Military Police Coronel & ex-UPP Coordinator:

5.

Proposal: Invest in intelligence to investigate drug trafficking, efficiency and creativity to recover and optimize resources, in addition to having priorities and an action plan.

Implementation: It depends on the actions of the federal and state governments, and on the reallocation of resources towards the intelligence sector.


Michele dos Ramos, from the Igarapé Institute:

6.

Proposal: Prioritize the prevention and investigation of life-threatening crimes, with strategies focused on groups, places and behaviors that are more vulnerable to violence. Prioritize evidence-based and results-oriented policies.

Implementation: State government action to prioritize the Civil Police investigation sector and prevention through the Military Police.

7.

Proposal: Qualified repression and modernization of criminal and penitentiary policy.

Implementation: Qualified repression depends on the intelligence sector. And the modernization of the criminal and penitentiary policy, on change in the National Plan of National and Penitentiary Policy, made by a council of the same name from the Ministry of Justice.

8.

Proposal: Discuss the problem of drug use as a public health issue, review drug policy and consolidate responsible regulation of weapons and ammunition.

Implementation: The decriminalization of drugs, or just marijuana, can be done by Congress or by the Federal Supreme Court. The consolidation of the regulation of arms, provided for in the Disarmament Statute, depends on Congress.

9.

Proposal: Disseminate data and information on public policies and programs that work.

Implementation: It depends on joint action between states and the federal government.


Hugo Acero, expert in security and sociology:

10.

Proposal: Increased cooperation among countries in the fight against major mafias, not only drug trafficking, but also trafficking of people, smuggling, the illegal arms trade and terrorism.

Implementation: Cooperation between countries may be promulgated by decree from the President of the Republic, after the policy is drafted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


ECONOMY

Mauro Osório, President of the Pereira Passos Institute:

11.

Proposal: Make a pension reform.

Implementation: There is already a proposal awaiting voting in the House. It is PEC 287/16. In May, the state also approved the 14% increase in social security contribution for public servants.

12.

Proposal: Increase revenue and discuss the collection of ICMS tax at the destination and the Kandir Law (which exempts taxes on exports).

Implementation: By decision of the STF, a commission in Congress is already discussing a change in the Kandir Law. A change in ICMS tax only on the destination of the product (especially oil) depends on the Union’s articulation with all 27 federative units.

13.

Proposal: Establish a policy for territorialized budgets.

Implementation: It depends on the planning of city hall and the approval of the budget law by the House.

14.

Proposal: Sanitize and clean Guanabara Bay.

Implementation: The proposal has been in place since 2012, but has not solved the problem and is threatened by the economic crisis. It’s the Environmental Sanitation Program of the Cities in the Area Around the Bay, created by CEDAE, which may be privatized.

15.

Proposal: Integrate the capital with the interior, and make the city of Rio de Janeiro into a regional economic hub.

Implementation: Integration depends on joint action by city halls and state government.


David Zylbersztajn, partner at DZ Negócios and ex-director of the National Agency of Petroleum (ANP)

16.

Proposal: Stimulate entrepreneurship and reduce bureaucracy.

Implementation: It depends on the action of the city and state power spheres. Since 2015, Rio’s city hall has the Rio + Fácil program, which reduces bureaucracy to open companies. The program can be extended.

17.

Proposal: Invest in a modern, post-oil, low-carbon economy, and in Rio’s vocations (tourism, hospitality, entertainment).

Implementation: The city already has incentive programs for the modern economy, such as RioCriativo and StartupRio. They could be expanded.

18.

Proposal: Create tourism incentive laws and a tourism training school in Rio de Janeiro.

Implementation: Laws to encourage tourism can be created by Alerj, the City Council, the Executive branch or as proposals from civil society. The creation of a tourism training school would also depend on municipal or state initiative, and could be done in partnership with the private sector.


Christino Áureo, State Secretary of the Civil Office and Economic Development:

19.

Proposal: Create a fiscal recovery plan, with impacts for the next six years, foreseeing a R$53.6 billion revenue increase and R$25 billion reduction in expenses, in addition to the suspension of the payment of public debt.

Implementation: The State of Rio and the Union have scheduled the approval of the State Tax Recovery Regime for this week. The state will also receive clearance to take out bank loans, which will allow, for example, the auction that will use Cedae shares as a guarantee. The state expects to obtain up to R$3.5 billion from the operation.

20.

Proposal: Review laws that only affect the State of Rio in relation to ICMS and environmental taxes, to ease investors’ minds and make the environment less adverse for those who invest in Rio.

Implementation: The change in the environmental licensing fee and ICMS may occur at the initiative of the state government. Changes in the rate of control and environmental inspection at the federal and state levels already go through the Legislature.


TOURISM

Roberto Medina, businessman and President of Rock in Rio:

21.

Proposal: Highlight R$200 million of the R$1.3 billion in federal government investment in events to privilege Rio and create the “Rio de Janeiro a Janeiro” calendar of events.

Implementation: The investment has already been announced by the Ministry of Culture. An Embratur ordinance, which will be published by Monday, will create a calendar of 150 cultural, sports and tourism events in the State of Rio, which should receive a contribution of R$200 million.

Bruno Marques, President of the Cataratas group, AquaRio:

22.

Proposal: Reform Rio Zoo to strengthen tourism.

Implementation: It’s already in progress. The city of Rio made a bid to cede the administration of Rio Zoo to the Cataratas Group, which is renovating the site for R$80 million.


Paulo Michel, Vice President of ABIH / RJ:

23.

Proposal: Treat tourism as an economic activity. Teach tourism while in school.

Implementation: It depends on change in the National Curriculum. There is a proposal drawn up by the Ministry of Education, which is in its third version, and citizens can suggest changes at public hearings.

24.

Proposal: Create experiences for tourists.

Implementation: At the city level, experiences in tourism compete with Riotur and the Secretary of Public Order (Seop), which grants a license for new events, registered in the Carioca Digital portal.

25.

Proposal: Bureaucratize the granting of licenses to attract new events.

Implementation: To de-bureaucratize bureaucracy, at the city level, has to be an initiative of the Municipal Secretariat of Public Order (Seop), responsible for granting permits.

26.

Proposal: To guarantee ostensible security in areas of touristic interest.

Implementation: There are already projects financed by Fecomércio, the state and city government, such as Operação Presente, which operates in Lapa, Lagoa, Méier, Aterro and Centro.

27.

Proposal: Establish more flexible rules for granting visas to foreign tourists and strengthen advertising abroad.

Implementation: They can be implemented by an interim measure, signed by the President, or by a change in the Migration Law.


URBAN MOBILITY

Guilherme Ramalho, President of Metrô:

28.

Proposal: Optimize the already-installed transport network, since there are bus lines overlapping with the BRT, train and subway.

Implementation: Joint action of the city halls in the Metropolitan Region of Rio and the State Secretary of Transportation.

29.

Proposal: Create a metropolitan authority to oversee and plan the transportation system as a whole.

Implementation: Approval of Bill No. 10, from 2015, which creates a metropolitan agency, being considered by Alerj.

30.

Proposal: Create sustainable financing solutions, such as urban tolls, to subsidize tariffs, and the expansion of public transportation.

Implementation: Integration between city, state and federal government, and bill approval at the city or state level.


Paulo Cezar Ribeiro, from Coppe/UFRJ:

31.

Proposal: Reorganize Rio’s urban transport before the economy resumes, to avoid bottlenecks in urban mobility. Improve the traffic light system and review the city’s horizontal and vertical signs.

Implementation: Actions by the city hall through the Company of Rio Traffic Engineering (CET-Rio).


Vicente Loureiro, Executive Director of Câmara Metropolitana:

32.

Proposal: Plan the physical and tariff-based integration of urban transport.

Implementation: Actions from the State Secretary of Transport, or through the Strategic Development Plan of the Rio Metropolitan Region which will be submitted to Alerj.

33.

Proposal: Stimulate regional economic growth to unlock the transport system. Establish policies of employment opportunities distributed by region.

Implementation: Approve the Strategic Development Plan of the Rio Metropolitan Region, which will be submitted to Alerj, and changes in the incentive law to strengthen the economy in strategic regions.


PUBLIC POLICIES

César Benjamin, City Secretary of Education:

34.

Proposal: Implement a combined process of qualitative and quantitative assessments in the city’s education network.

Implementation: It depends on a decree.

35.

Proposal: Eliminate functional illiteracy in the city network, starting in 2018, setting up a team of two thousand literacy teachers.

Implementation: Taking into account that city hall is prohibited by the Law of Fiscal Responsibility to promote entry exams or hire staff, the secretary will need to relocate teachers in the network.


Claudia Costin, expert in public administration and former City Secretary of Education:

36.

Proposal: Create alternatives so that students do not stop studying when their schools close because of violence. A plan “b” could come in the form of an activity book, which the student would take home.

Implementation: It depends on administrative action from the Education Department, which would prepare, print and distribute the notebooks.

37.

Proposal: Develop strategies to comply with the Incheon Declaration, of which Brazil is a signatory, which establishes, among other goals, ensuring inclusive, equitable and quality education, as well as promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all.

Implementation: The City Department of Education already published, in the Official Gazette, a schedule and budget for its goals. The implementation of the projects, however, runs up against the city’s budget issues.


Vilma Guimarães, general manager of education at the Roberto Marinho Foundation:

38.

Proposal: Replicate positive experiences in the teaching network, universalizing practical units that were successful in certain schools.

Implementation: Detecting and replicating good practices in the network depends on administrative acts by the city and state education networks.


Márcio Maranhão, thoracic surgeon, health management expert and author of “Sob Pressão”:

39.

Proposal: Create a governance mechanism in the public health sector based on accountability, equity, sustainability and transparency.

Implementation: The National Audit Department exercises audit and specialized inspection activities within SUS. To change or create a new analytical tool in SUS, it would be necessary to approve a complementary law.


ETHICS

Eduardo Gussem, Rio’s Attorney General:

40.

Proposal: Create a committee with the presence of representatives of the Judiciary, Legislative and Executive, Public Prosecutor’s Office, Public Defender’s Office, state and city court, OAB, business, press and other sectors of civil society.

Implementation: It depends on the participation and interest of these sectors.


Felipe Saboya, Ethos Institute:

41.

Proposal: Make public purchases more transparent and with more modern control.

Implementation: Change the Bidding Law in Congress and provide for new control mechanisms.

42.

Proposal: Change the criteria for choosing members of audit courts to restrict the political influence of nominations.

Implementation: It depends on changing federal and state legislations, which adopt different criteria for electing members of these courts.

43.

Proposal: Make the city, state and federal budgets more transparent and with greater popular participation.

Implementation: It’s necessary to review budgetary elaboration processes in the three administrative spheres, modifying Executive and Legislative norms.

44.

Proposal: Hold more public hearings to consult the population before making decisions.

Implementation: Include a device, by constitutional amendment, that generalizes the obligation of public hearings, which today are restricted to some areas.

45.

Proposal: Summon the population more consistently to decide on issues through plebiscites and referendums.

Implementation: Change law 9.709, from 1998, to simplify the convocation of plebiscites and referendums and to increase the possibilities of convocation.

46.

Proposal: Include a “compliance” clause in contracts between companies and public authorities.

Implementation: Change the Bidding Law to include the requirement for public contracting. Government authorities could also adopt this practice by signing contracts.

47.

Proposal: Implement a political reform to ensure greater participation of women and cheapen the cost of election campaigns.

Implementation: Requires constitutional amendment to create a female quota. To lessen the cost of campaigns, Congress must change the law governing the operation of campaigning.


Fernando Gabeira, journalist and former Congressman:

48.

Proposal: Make public contracting through insurers, which could make construction less susceptible to corruption and delays.

Implementation: The House is already negotiating a proposal to amend the Bidding Law and force the contracting of insurance for 100% of the construction that is government contracted.

49.

Proposal: Separate the elections of the Legislative and the Executive, so that the mayor, governor and president have greater parliamentary support.

Implementation: Approve a constitutional amendment to separate the elections.


Miro Teixeira, congressman for the Rio Sustainability Network:

50.

Proposal: Change the internal control system of the ministries, so that the portfolio holder does not choose who will control management.

Implementation: The Head of the Executive can determine, for example, that only auditors of the Federal Audit Office or the Office of the Comptroller General of the Union have the function of controlling expenditure.

Source (PT)

Preserving Carioca landscapes

Carioca landscapes: world heritage to be preserved (in PT)

One of the 14 World Cultural Heritage sites in Brazil is Rio de Janeiro’s landscape. It’s the only item on the list that brings together urbanism and natural beauty. So what do we need to do to preserve this scenery? Here’s a 10-minute talk with architect and city planner Luiz Fernando Janot.


Essentially, it’s hard to think about preservation and UNESCO titles when there’s so much work that needs to be done locally on multiple levels, first.

Policing Rio beaches – 1917

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Cariocas and the Sea, Not Always a Love Affair
O Globo, 2005

The history of the evolution of habits shows that going to the beach was already an activity that could end at the police station

The sea bath in 1917 was therapy advised by doctors and restricted, by decree, to certain times. Noise and shouting were also forbidden. Bathing suits, only with “necessary decency”, that is, with the body covered up. The swimsuits were less suffocating in the 1930s, but the police took the looser bathers to jail. It was the “pro-decency campaign.” The libertarian vocation of the Carioca was reborn in the boldness of the fifties, which, even under the sandstorm of conservatives, transgressed with showy “two pieces.” The swimsuit became the bikini, and in the 80s they took off the top. Topless didn’t take root, but the limit was no longer a decree or code of conduct, but the fashion.

With a century having passed, Cariocas have killed off various laws, ordinances and rules of behavior to choose, without repression, the proper conduct for the magical scenery formed by sand, sea and bodies exposed to the sun.

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Outlaw bathers could spend five days in jail

The beaches fell into the purview of the law after a decree (1.143) from Rio Mayor Amaro Cavalcanti in May 1917. The measure, which regulated the use of Leme and Copacabana beaches, instituted: “Sea baths will only be allowed from April 1st to November 30th, from 6 to 9AM and from 4 to 6PM; From December 1st to March 31st from 5 to 8AM and from 5 to 7PM. In other words: during the day, the beach was off limits. Anyone who broke the rules, paid 20 mil reis or spent five days in prison.

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Claudia Gaspar, author of the book “Orla Carioca: história e cultura“, says that the first beaches laws had probable French origin.

“The rules must have come from manuals from that country, so much that the lifeguard stations were called places of sauvatage. Despite the restrictions, it was a step up from the previous period, when some people rented boats in Praça XV to take private baths off the coast. The beach was still more medicinal than social,” recalls Claudia.

Writers came out in defense of the one-piece. The author of “Orla Carioca” found in a 1926 edition of the newspaper “Beira Mar” an ode to freedom: “We are already angry about this false moral civilization created by our grandparents. It is frankly ridiculous that in the mid-twentieth century we want to shape our standard of living in the archaic and moldy mirrors of 1830. ”

It was not long before society reacted: on January 12, 1931, on the front page of Globo, the headline said: “The pro-modesty campaign was initiated by the police on the bathing beaches of Rio.” The photos showed bathers forced to wear long robes and others being taken to the police station. It was forbidden, among other things, to walk the access streets to the beach dressed in swimsuits. The limits continued in the years to come, as 69-year old retired UFRJ history professor Miridan Falci says:

“One would leave the beach with a large towel wrapped around one’s body, and at times it was forbidden. On the buses, a warning said: “the entry of bathers is prohibited”. But I witnessed liberation: I was on Ipanema Beach in 1971, the day that Leila Diniz appeared pregnant in a bikini!

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Topless fashion erupted in the “summer of amnesty”, in 1980, but it never became a broad, general and unrestrained fashion. Legally, it was banned and unbanned several times – the first time in 1973, when the Federal Supreme Court denied an injunction requested by a bather, who wanted to expose her body with the approval of the judges. In 2000, commercial representative Rosimeri Moura da Costa, 34, was arrested while going topless in Recreio, accused of an obscene act. Today, Cariocas are free to leave the beach and go to chic places, but they prefer tempered swimsuits, even on the beach, according to a couple of artists Lúcio Tapajós, 35, and Renata Nonô, 32. She gives her version for the return to the past:

“Even to buy a coconut at the kiosk, many girls wear a shorts or a sarong. And the bikinis look like bathing suits. But this is not a conservative wave, but an excess of body worship. People get hysterical when they have cellulite or a stretch mark.”

It is another kind of dictatorship: that of the perfect body. But at least in sports, there are those who float above the new rules. Marianne Kerr, 23, surfs every day in a bikini at Leblon. When the time is short, one leaves home ready to enter the water without fear of being misinterpreted.

“Since I live close by, when I’m in a hurry, before college or work, I go out in a bikini to the beach. Cariocas do not do much of this, but there is nothing wrong with it”, says the surfer, who studies psychology at PUC.

Marianne would not have a good time on a beach from last century. She would have a problem with her bikini until the 1950s, and in the 1970s she would have to leave the board in the sand for most of the day, as surfing also suffered under the laws. A 1976 resolution by the State Department of Public Safety established that the sport could only be practiced after 2PM on seven beaches in the state. On the rest of the coast it was forbidden. Frescobol continues to be illegal, but the most restricted sport currently is kitesurfing, allowed in Rio just between two kiosks at Barra beach. – Source (PT, PDF)


For more, listen to this 10-minute podcast (PT) from Cultura Popular Carioca, or read this article (PT) from O Globo. From Deep Rio, be sure to check out The Cabines of Copacabana. I’ll also add two articles from Revista da Semana from 1917/18 that talk about the dangers of indecency (once clicked, you can open them full size in the bottom, right-hand corner).

 

Gavea Planetarium gets protected status

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“Inaugurated on November 19, 1970, the Fundação Planetário is dedicated to disseminating astronomy and related sciences and offering quality culture and leisure to the people of Rio de Janeiro and other visitors, becoming synonymous with fun not only through the Summit Sessions, but by promoting a series of cultural activities and projects, for all kinds of people, allowing integration between the most diverse areas of science.

The Planetarium Foundation has two units in operation: Gávea and Santa Cruz. In Gávea, the visitor can visit the Museum of the Universe, which houses 60 interactive experiments and exhibitions; the Giordano Bruno Library, with a collection of approximately 2,500 books, the amphitheater, the Sergio Menge auditorium, the Galileo Space, aimed at children’s recreation; Telescopes Square, where telescope observations occur; and the Carl Sagan and Galileo Galilei Summits, reformed in 2011.” – Official Site

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Protected Status

Amid the legal dispute over a possible sale of the land to pay labor debts, the Gávea Planetarium will be listed as part of Rio’s historical and cultural heritage. The bill 2.640/17 had already been approved by the Rio de Janeiro Legislative Assembly (Alerj), who on Wednesday (August 23, 2017) overturned governor Luiz Fernando Pezão’s veto. Of the 70 parliamentarians, 48 voted in favor of overturning the veto.

The declaration does not prevent the sale of the land, which almost took place in April in order to pay the labor debts of Rio’s State Housing Company (Cehab), which owns the area. But the demolition or de-characterization of the original property is forbidden. – Source (PT)

Rio Olympics, one year later

I’ve been seeing articles and videos on the topic for a few months but I was waiting for one that could hit upon the zeitgeist. I think this 19-min report by China Global TV Network does a nice job of showing just that.

It’s sad to see but it’s not like this wasn’t the expected outcome. There are so many pressing issues but I feel like if public safety could be at least under control, it’d make a world of difference. For that to happen, police presence would have to be increased by 10 times.

How to find Rio Samba Groups

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A project from the Pereira Passos Institute, by Rio’s Secretary of Culture and the NGO Rede Carioca de Rodas de Samba, is trying to measure how many there are, how many people attend and how much money is generated by one of Rio’s main cultural heritage activities: samba groups. An in-depth study has led to the launch of a platform three weeks ago that aims to map them in the city.


Project Site (click “#MapaParticipativoRodas”, then “Explorar o Mapa”)


“Those who get around the city, and who like the samba groups know that these events take place seven days a week, throughout the year. Unlike Carnival, which is seasonal, the samba groups come together all the time. We wanted to understand where the groups are, what their potential and demands are,” explained geographer João Grand Júnior, one of the creators of the system and a student of the subject.

The project began at the end of 2015, with a decree by the City of Rio de Janeiro. The first step was a study that identified 140 to 150 samba groups in the city. The second step is mapping them online. The study was dependent on the event organizations.

“We summon the samba groups to put their information on the map. Previously, we did the survey ourselves but today we invite the samba groups to participate in the survey,” said the geographer.

Currently the site has about 25 samba groups registered, but the idea is that the number increases with the visibility of the platform.

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Economic potential of samba groups

With the slogan “Vive mejor quem samba” (Those who samba, live better), the researcher carried out a study with 25 samba groups from Rio de Janeiro to evaluate the potential of the market. This small sample of the samba groups market in Rio de Janeiro yielded R$1.33 million per month.

The study data shows that 66% of the public consume on average over R$50 a month at this type of event. For 31% of respondents, consumption exceeds R$75.

One of the next steps for the Pereira Passos Institute, Rio’s Secretary of Culture and Rede Carioca de Rodas de Samba is to try to scale the number of professionals who work and depend on the market. From salespeople, to musicians and technicians.

The map of Rio’s samba groups of Rio will remain online indefinitely. The idea is that it’s updated constantly and becomes a medium of reference not only for researchers, but also for the regulars, when choosing the places that they will visit. – Source (PT)


Enjoy a short documentary (PT) on the NGO that made the project

Long Life to Folha Seca!

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A day doesn’t go by without news of the closing of a traditional establishment: a used bookstore that has a particular abundance of French books, a coffeehouse that was always full of people, a hotel that had lodged a world champion team (from Uruguay, in 1950), a newstand that served espressos to clients and even an important store for sports items on the most expensive block in Ipanema. Behind each story is the flight of clientele and money and the [economic] crash that swept the country.

At the same time, one doesn’t hear about the closing of pharmacies, banks, and Evangelic temples, nor of stores dedicated to mattresses, furniture or articles for the home. Incidentally, they occupy the spaces where nice and needed commerce was located up until a short time ago. It’s not that these new, arrogant stores can’t exist. But who needs four pharmacies from the same chain in a single block? In other countries, the government controls this excess.

That’s why when one learns that a bookstore in Rio is celebrating its 19th anniversary, it’s not a case of only blowing out the candles, but of setting off rockets. That’s what’s happening today, the anniversary of Folha Seca, on Ouvidor street, coinciding with Saint Sebastian, patron saint of the city. When Rodrigo Ferrari opened it, in 1998, the idea was audacious: a “Carioca bookstore”, specialized in books about Rio, popular music and football. Since when does a country in eternal crisis behave with such specialization?

But Rodrigo undertook it and his presence injected happiness into that section of Ouvidor, between Primeiro de Março and Travessa do Comércio. Bars, restaurants and samba circles cropped up, making it one of the most pleasant blocks of old Rio.

Rio couldn’t be understood without Folha Seca. A long life to this bookstore, that does the city so well! – Source (PT)

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Also, here’s a recent piece (PT) on O Globo about the bookstore